The Consitution of India
India is the largest democracy in the world. Its present parliamentary system, with an a fully elected lower house, and an appointed upper house is based on the British parliamentary system, with the president of India taking the role of the British monarch.
Constitution of India (Hindi: भारतीय संविधान, see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of the government and spells out the fundamental rights, directive principles and duties of citizens. It is the longest[ written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 94 amendments, for a total of 117,369 words in the English language version. Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation.
Passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, it came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the declaration of independence of 1930. It declares the Union of India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty and, to promote among them all, fraternity. The words "socialist", "secular", "integrity" and "to promote among them all fraternity" were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment. India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day. After coming into effect, the Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India.